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Effective Redis

Good Afternoon!

I'm Matt. Or @elazar if you're on Twitter.

Nice to meet you. Thanks for attending.

Presumptions

  • You know the basics of PHP including how to use its object model
  • You may have worked with PDO, SQL, relational databases, memcached, or Redis
  • You want to learn about caching, data structures, key-value stores, or NoSQL databases

Questions or Feedback?

Slides

matthewturland.com/presentations

Let Me Tell You a Story

Caching Books

booksxyz.com

"Can you cache the books listed on the home page?

Redis

Redis is an open source (BSD licensed), in-memory data structure store, used as database, cache and message broker.
redis.io

Installing Redis

Redis Documentation

Main documentation page

Full list of commands

Connecting with CLI client

redis-cli
redis-cli -h 127.0.0.1 -p 6379

Quick Start

Predis

Predis is a flexible and feature-complete Redis client library for PHP >= 5.3.
github.com/nrk/predis

Installing Predis

Just use Composer.

composer install predis/predis

Predis Documentation

Could be better. Tour, examples, or tests.

Connecting with Predis

Just instantiate the client.


$redis = new \Predis\Client;
            

Connecting to a server with Predis

Client options

Connection parameters

Simple Caching Example


$redis = new \Predis\Client;
$cached_books = $redis->get('home_page_books');
if (empty($cached_books)) {
    $pdo = new \PDO('...');
    $books = $pdo->query('...')->fetchAll();
    $redis->set('home_page_books', serialize($books));
} else {
    $books = unserialize($cached_books);
}
            

Redis commands for strings

Notes on Debugging


$ redis-cli
127.0.0.1:6379> KEYS *
1) "foo"
[snip]

127.0.0.1:6379> KEYS book_*
1) "book_12345"
[snip]

127.0.0.1:6379> TYPE book_12345
hash
            

Redis commands for keys

Problem #1

            Boss:
            What happens if we update data for any of these books?

            You:
            We'd be presenting stale cached data to the end user.

            Boss:
            
            

Cache Books Individually


$cached_book = $redis->get('book_12345');
if (empty($cached_book)) {
    $book = $pdo->query('...')->fetch(\PDO::FETCH_ASSOC);
    $redis->set('book_12345', serialize($book));
} else {
    $book = unserialize($cached_book);
}
            

Write Book Identifiers to a List


// Prepend the book to the list
$redis->lpush('home_page_books', '12345');

// Append the book to the list
$redis->rpush('home_page_books', '12345');

// Replace the first book in the list with this book
$redis->lset('home_page_books', 0, '12345');

// Add the book to the list before or after another book
$redis->linsert('home_page_books', 'BEFORE', '67890', '12345');

// Remove all instances of the book from the list
$redis->lrem('home_page_books', 0, '12345');
            

Redis commands for lists

Read Books Using the List


$book_keys = array_map(
    function ($id) { return 'book_' . $id; },
    $redis->lrange('home_page_books', 0, -1)
);
$cached_books = $redis->mget($book_keys);
$books = array_map('unserialize', $cached_books);
            
Multi Pass

Notes about Lists

  • Elements are ordered / sorted
  • Allow duplicate elements
  • Similar to enumerated arrays
  • Useful for iteration and pagination
  • Can be used to implement job queues - check out Gary Hockin's talk

Problem #2

            Boss:
            Our network seems really saturated with traffic.

            You:
            We're caching all available data per book
            and retrieving it every time we need any of it.

            Boss:
            
            

Cache Books in Hashes


$book = $redis->hgetall('book_12345');
// or
$book = $redis->hmget('book_12345', ['title', 'author', 'price']);

if (empty($book)) {
    $book = $pdo->query('...')->fetch(\PDO::FETCH_ASSOC);
    $redis->hmset('book_12345', $book);
}
            

Redis commands for hashes

Notes about Hashes

  • Elements are technically not ordered / sorted
  • Every element has a unique associated key
  • Similar to associative arrays
  • Useful for storing key-value pairs with a common association

Problem #3

            Boss:
            We want the individual book page to show a section with other
            books ordered by customers who ordered that book. Can we do that?
            

Store Ordered Books in Sets


// Someone who ordered book 12345 also ordered book 67890
$redis->sadd('ordered_12345', '67890');

// Get identifiers of all books ordered with book 12345
$ordered_books = $redis->smembers('ordered_12345');

// Get identifier for a random book ordered with book 12345
$ordered_book = $redis->srandmember('ordered_12345');
            

Redis commands for sets

Problem #4

            Boss:
            We want the shopping cart page to show a section with other books
            ordered by customers who ordered all the books in the cart. Can
            we do that?
            

Intersect Ordered Book Sets


// Assuming these values:
$ordered_12345 = $redis->smembers('ordered_12345'); // ['23456', '34567']
$ordered_67890 = $redis->smembers('ordered_67890'); // ['34567', '45678']

// Get other books ordered with books 12345 and 67890
$ordered_books = $redis->sinter('ordered_12345', 'ordered_67890');

// $ordered_books is now assigned ['34567']
            

Other Set Operations


// Assuming these values:
$ordered_12345 = $redis->smembers('ordered_12345'); // ['23456', '34567']
$ordered_67890 = $redis->smembers('ordered_67890'); // ['34567', '45678']

// Get books ordered with book 12345 but not with book 67890
$ordered_12345 = $redis->sdiff('ordered_12345', 'ordered_67890');
// ['23456']

// Get books ordered with either of books 12345 and 67890
$ordered_12345 = $redis->sunion('ordered_12345', 'ordered_67890');
// ['23456', '34567', '45678']
            

Notes about Sets

  • Elements are not ordered / sorted
  • Not really designed for direct access
  • Only contain unique elements, duplicates are ignored
  • Useful for operations related to membership within groups of elements

Problem #5

            Boss:
            Oh, wait, I forgot, we also want the ordered books sorted by how
            many times they've been ordered. Can we do that?
            

Store Books in Sorted Sets


// Add a book ordered with book 12345 for the first time
$rank = $redis->zscore('ordered_12345', '67890');
if ($rank === null) {
    $redis->zadd('ordered_12345', 1, '67890');
} else {
    $redis->zincrby('ordered_12345', 1, '67890');
}

// Or, with Redis >= 3
$redis->zadd('ordered_12345', 'INCR', 1, '67890');
            

Redis commands for sorted sets

Get Books by Order Score


// Get books ordered with book 12345... 

// ... sorted with MOST orders first
$ordered_books = $redis->zrevrange('ordered_12345');

// ... sorted with LEAST orders first
$ordered_books = $redis->zrange('ordered_12345');

// ... at least twice, sorted with MOST orders first
$ordered_books = $redis->zrevrangebyscore('ordered_12345', 2, '+inf');

// ... at least twice, sorted with LEAST orders first
$ordered_books = $redis->zrangebyscore('ordered_12345', 2, '+inf');
            

Problem #6

            Boss:
            We're storing a lot of book data in Redis and running out of
            memory.

            You:
            We're storing a lot of binary flags in the book hashes.
            

Storing User Flags using Bitmaps


// Enable the 8th flag for book 12345
$redis->setbit('book_12345_flags', 7, 1);

// Disable the 4th flag for book 12345
$redis->setbit('book_12345_flags', 3, 0);

// Get the value of the 8th flag for book 12345
$flag = $redis->getbit('book_12345_flags', 7);
            

BIT commands in Redis commands for strings

Fast Easy Realtime Metrics using Redis Bitmaps

Problem #7

            Boss:
            Book database queries are spiking and ordered books are no longer
            being updated in Redis.
            
            You:
            FUUUUUUUU...
            

Checking Memory Usage


$ redis-cli
127.0.0.1:6379> INFO
...

# Memory
used_memory:104857600
used_memory_human:100M
...

127.0.0.1:6379> CONFIG GET maxmemory
100mb
            

Redis Persistence

Expiring Data


// Delete an element by key
$redis->del('ordered_12345');

// Expire an element one minute from now
$redis->expire('ordered_12345', 60);

// Same thing, but with a specific time
$redis->expireat('ordered_12345', time() + 60);

// Remove any set expiration time
$redis->persist('ordered_12345');

// Get remaining seconds before expiration
$expires_in = $redis->ttl('ordered_12345');
            

Redis commands for keys

Using Redis as an LRU cache

Problem #8

            Boss:
            When we use multiple Redis commands in one place, it seems to slow
            our page load times.

            You:
            We're making network round trips for each command we send.
            

Pipelining


$responses = $redis->pipeline(function ($pipe) {
    $pipe->sadd('ordered_12345', '67890');
    $pipe->smembers('ordered_12345');
});

// or

$responses = $redis->pipeline()
    ->sadd('ordered_12345', '67890')
    ->smembers('ordered_12345')
    ->execute();
            

Command pipelines

Problem #9

            Boss:
            Redis went down last night. There are now instances where some keys
            related to other keys are missing.

            You:
            We're not using transactions.
            

Transactions


$responses = $redis->transaction(function ($tx) {
    $tx->del('ordered_12345');
    $tx->sadd('ordered_12345', '67890');
    // ...
});

// or

$responses = $redis->transaction()
    ->del('ordered_12345')
    ->sadd('ordered_12345', '67890')
    ->execute();
            

Transactions with Predis

Redis commands for transactions

Problem #10

            Boss:
            We want to audit what we're storing in Redis. Create a report.
            

Keyspace Iterators

You can use SCAN / SSCAN / HSCAN / ZSCAN, or...


// Equivalent to using SCAN
use Predis\Collection\Iterator\Keyspace;
foreach (new Keyspace($redis, 'book_*') as $key) {
    $book = $redis->hgetall($key);
    // ...
}
            

Iterators in Predis

Other Cool Stuff

That's All, Folks

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