Situations involving hierarchical data and relational databases are quite common in web applications. Trees lend themselves quite well to providing organizational structures a web site, such as sitemaps and breadcrumb trails. A slightly less common and different type of situation, where the application is just as useful and a solution is a bit more complex to derive, is one involving graphical data (as in graphs, not graphics) and relational databases. These situations have issues like the shortest path problem and find their solutions in graph theory such as the A* algorithm or Dijkstra’s algorithm. An example of such a situation is an airline web site that requires the ability to locate connecting and round-trip flights and find the flight path with the lowest cost in terms of time or ticket price.
If you use MySQL, this chapter from “Get It Done with MySQL 5” is a fairly verbose but comprehensive guide to using MySQL to store graphical data. It includes background information such as terminology used in graph theory and has numerous implementation examples of adjacency list graph models, nested set graph models, and breadth-first and depth-first graph search algorithms.
For Oracle users, there’s a slightly more application-oriented tutorial that assumes more theoretical knowledge on the part of the reader. It shows that Oracle’s hierarchical data features unfortunately can’t be used in cases where cycles might exist in graphs (which is handy if you’re trying to detect them) and then goes on to show an implementation that uses temporary tables to store a summary of a graph analysis. A worthy side note is that part 2 of that tutorial deals with a more specialized approach using state machines that may or may not be applicable to your situation.
If you’d like more information on this topic, a good place to look is your local university. Most with a computer science program offer a course in theory of computation, which deals with topics like these as well as context-free grammars in the context of developing programming languages. Even if you never actually use this information to develop a language yourself, it can still serve a good purpose: it make you more informed when engaging in discussions about language development, and it can increase your appreciation for the beauty of a language from a user perspective.